Glucose, is the excretion of glucose into the urine. The kidneys are able to reclaim all of the filtered glucose from the urine into the bloodstream. Normally, there are no spurs of glucose in the urine, if there are, you should go see your vet. Glucosuria therefore is nearly always due to kidney disorders, such as diabetes mellitus.
The urinalysis can provide information not only about the kidneys and bladder, but the liver, pancreas, and other organs. Apart from helping veterinarians to make a diagnosis, a urinalysis is also helpful to determine a prognosis (a forecast of the outcome of the disease) and to check the response to a treatment.
Still, as with other tests, the urinalysis is just a reflection of what is going on in the animal's body during a certain period of time. The veterinarian must always take everything into consideration that is affecting the animal and, in turn, how that may influence the test results. PEZZ HealthCheck does NOT replace a vet, all parameters can be interpreted and clarified by your vet.
Urobilinogen, formed from bilirubin by intestinal microflora, is absorbed into the portal circulation and excreted renally. A small amount of urinary urobilinogen is normal. Increased urinary urobilinogen occurs with hyperbilirubinemia; a negative test may be seen with biliary obstruction.
Ketones are byproducts produced by the cells of your dog’s body when they aren’t receiving adequate energy in the form of nutrients. Ketonuria is associated with primary ketosis, ketosis secondary to diabetes mellitus, prolonged fasting or starvation, pregnancy, etc. If there is detection of Ketones, you should go see your vet.
The function of white blood cells, also called leukocytes, is to defend the body against infection. The presence of a high rate of white blood cells can be a sign of an infection or inflammation in the bladder or kidneys. Leucocytes do not always show the reliable results on urine test. That’s why you should go see your vet if a positive result occurs.
Protein isn’t a normal component of urine, so a positive test for protein may indicate a bacterial infection, a problem with the kidneys, or blood in the urine. If your pet is passing protein, ask your vet to complete a urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPC) or microalbuminuria (MA) level to quantitatively determine how much protein is being passed. If there is high component of protein in the urine, go and see your vet.
The test will pick up the presence of red blood cells or other components of blood in urine. This finding should always lead to a microscopic evaluation of the urine to check for infection, inflammation, or bladder or kidney stones.
Urine pH is typically acidic in, but varies depending on diet, medications, or presence of disease, or starvation. The normal value is between 5 and 7,5. A bacterial urinary tract infection with a urease-producing microbe will result in alkaluria. In combination with other parameters, it can detect trace of diseases, that can be interpreted by your vet.
Nitrite is produced by certain bacteria. When the test is done correctly and your pet’s urine contains any nitrite, it is quite likely that it has a bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) - even when no bacteria were seen. Just because your pet’s urine tested negative for nitrite does not mean that it does not have a urinary tract infection.